Law No.22/1999 on local government and Law No.25/1999 on the balancing of finance between local government and the national government give greater power and responsibilities for the government at district and city level. The enactment of these two laws on decentralization leads to the formulation of local regulations (Perda) in all regions in Indonesia.
For instance, in Samarinda, since the implementation of decentralization law, there have been 25 local government regulations (Perda) while previously there were only 23 Perda (2000), 15 Perda (1999), 19 Perda (1998), 23 Perda (1997), and 15 Perda (1996). This can be seen as something positive as a response to restructure the centralized relation to be decentralized relation in the era of decentralization. The local government has the full rights to make a decision on its own political policy and budget allocation. However, we need to question whether the distribution of power also carries the understanding of equality perspective. There is a concern that the decentralization for local authority, when not supported by the awareness to support the poor group and treat men and women equally, can reinforce patriarchy at the local level. This is what referred to as an awareness to do gender mainstreaming.
The Indonesian government through Presidential Instruction (Inpres) Number 9/2000 has established a legal basis for Gender Mainstreaming (PUG) in all aspects of the national development. The government has also attempted to take strategic steps to disseminate gender perspective. In that regards, Indonesian government, after the reformation in 1998, has shown its willingness to implement PUG strategy in its development programs, policies, and regulations issued as a legal basis for the government’s works. Three years after the Presidential Instruction was issued, the government issued the Decree of the Minister of Home Affairs Number 132/2003 on General Guidelines on the Implementation of Gender Mainstreaming for Local Development. These regulations added the list of the previous regulations, for example Law Number 7/1984 on the ratification of Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; CEDAW. Related to the efforts of the government to implement PUG strategy, there are several regulations such as Law Number 25/2004 on National Development Planning System, especially Chapter 12 which is about the improvement of women’s quality of life and children’s welfare and protection. Besides, in the same Law, gender is also mentioned in thirteen other chapters which are the operational basis for the implementation of PUG strategy in each field of development. The law was then explained in Presidential Regulation Number 7 /2005 on the Medium Term National Development Plan (RPJM) year 2004-2009.
THE CONCEPT OF PERFORMANCE BUDGET
- A clear and structured system or technique for budget formulation based on the consideration of the workload and unit price of each event.
- A budget system which prioritizes the efforts to achieve work outputs of the planning of expenses allocation or stipulated inputs.
In order to formulate Local Government Work Plan which functions as an annual planning document, local government needs to conduct Multi Stakeholder Consultation Forum for Development Planning (Musrenbang) in all levels starting from the village to sub-district, and then continued to district/city, and finally provincial level and also held Forum of Local Government Work Unit (SKPD Forum).
As for formulating the Government Work Plan which functions as an annual national planning document, the government needs to conduct central Musrenbang, provincial Musrenbang, and national Musrenbang. All inputs from these Musrenbang are needed because they will influence development activities related to local funding or activities budget.
In this stage of planning and budgeting, we have to make sure that women participate by expressing their needs. We must ensure that women or women groups participate in every Musrenbang so that their needs and interests are represented.
Backgrounds of Gender Budget
The government has expressed its alignments to achieve gender equity and equality by issuing gender mainstreaming policy for all of its work programs (Presidential Instruction No.9/2000). However, gap between policies in favor of gender equality and ways taken by the government in allocating and spending its budget can still be seen.
The government, in conducting its programs and activities, needs funding as expressed in the local government budget (APBD) and state budget (APBN). The commitment from the government to conduct gender mainstreaming in all of its work programs should result in gender-responsive APBN and APBD, which means:
The use of APBN and APBD for people’s welfare should always take into account justice and equality values based on non-discriminative relationship patterns in relation to social class, religion, cultural group, ethnic group, and sex.
The research result on access and utilization of health services for poor women in seven districts, has show that services and utilization for reproductive health, particularly maternal health for poor women still very poor, moreover the budget allocation for reproductive and maternal health services in the research areas in average not more than 2% out of the district health office budget. This research also shows that the policy on maternal and reproductive health in the research areas are not exists yet.
WRI currently had extensive data related to reproductive health services in seven districts that can be developed as data base on reproductive health services. The data may also be used as sources of several publications under the theme of Women’s Health Services that will be delved through the discussion with experts.