Moral Economy of Women at the Factory: Social Dynamics at the Workplace (5)
The concept of “social capital” could simply be defined as the relationship between individuals, which forms a beneficial social network for various shared interests. This network becomes a material basis that could be accumulated by each individual to develop their potential. In the context of the female factory labor, the network is directly related with the factory environment and their social and residential surroundings. In this article, Khodijah presented how the relation between both environments is greatly important to support a female worker who tries to survive in the industrial relations. They usually take benefit from that social capital to find new employment sectors or lodging, as a means to recruit a family or relative in a certain company, and so on. Almost all of these social relations are pragmatic and closely related to the reality of daily life that the women workers must tackle in a short period of time; an apolitical social relation.
Mapping Study on Sources of Information and Data on EEO & Gender Discrimination in the Private Sector
Changing patterns of labor force participation in Indonesia and the rise of women in the labor force has brought issues of discrimination, employment opportunities, work and family issues, maternity and other protections, and representation to the fore. Sex discrimination at work can occur at all stages of employment, from pre-employment education and training, access to employment, terms and conditions of employment in the work place, promotion, to termination of employment.
Compared to men, women in Indonesia have lower labor force participation rates, higher un- and under-employment rates, lower wages, and over representation in the informal sector, and are segregated in low-skill, low-status occupations. Research findings on these and other outcomes point to the persistence of direct and indirect discrimination. Discrimination on the basis of race, religion, ethnicity, political views and disability also affect the labor market opportunities and outcomes of many women as well as men workers, although it remains to be proven whether the women in each discriminated group suffer more than the men.