This edition of the AFIRMASI (Affirmation) Journal summarizes the conditions and positions of women’s participation in the political sphere in Indonesia, particularly in formal politics. The term of affirmative action, for instance, despite being used in the national policy level through a target quota of 30% for women (Law on Elections 2003) as one of the political success for women’s movements, is still in fact a difficult rule to be implemented by political parties as regulations in their own institutions.
The 2nd Volume of AFIRMASI (Affirmation) Journal entitled “Women’s Movement Part of Indonesia’s Democratic Movement” is a result of the research conducted by Women Research Institute (WRI). This research aims to present not only women’s organizations and their works, but also an overview of the type of female leadership which is suitable for women’s organizations in Indonesia. WRI chose five areas of research, namely Jakarta, Lampung, North Sumatra, Padang, and Lombok, which represent the efforts of women’s organizations in handling women’s issues around them. This research aims to obtain an overview of the issues and challenges of women’s issues that are currently and will be faced by women’s organizations.